Referees are judicial officers who preside over hearings, consider testimony, and enter recommendations or adjudications. All referees are appointed (as opposed to judges, who are elected). Referees are attorneys (unless grandfathered in prior to 1993) who are in good standing with the State Bar of Michigan. A referee is considered a "judge" for purposes of the Judicial Canons, Rule 9.201. Juvenile Court referees preside over hearings designed to protect children at abuse and neglect" hearings. Children may be protected by being placed into foster homes. Juvenile referees also hear "juvenile delinquency" cases when minors violate criminal statutes. Juvenile referees make adjudications that become the order of the court.